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Psychology: Articles / databases

Resources to help when researching psychology topics.

Articles / Databases

PsychINFO Search Tips

  • Find Three Peer-Reviewed Empirical Articles in PsycINFO via APA PsycNET (YouTube video)

           This video shows a slightly different interface, but shows how to limit your search with the Limit fields in an Advanced search.


APA Methodology

METHODOLOGY:  Captures the research method used in a study, such as Clinical Case Study, Empirical Study, Experimental Replication, Follow up Study, Longitudinal Study, Prospective Study, retrospective Study, Field Study, Literature Review, Systematic Review, Mathematical Model, Meta Analysis, Non-clinical Case Study, Qualitative Study, Quantitative Study, Treatment Outcome/ Clinical Trial.

Empirical Study: Study based on facts, systematic observation, or experiment, rather than theory or general philosophical principle.

Clinical Case Study: Case reports that include disorder, diagnosis, and clinical treatment for mental or medical illnesses of individuals.

Non-clinical Case Study: Document consisting of non-clinical or organizational case examples of the concepts being researched or studied. The setting is always non-clinical and does not include treatment-related environments.

Treatment Outcome/Clinical Trial: Empirical evaluations undertaken to assess the results or consequences of treatment and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions. In clinical trials, at least one test treatment and one control treatment is used to study the safety and/or efficacy of new diagnostic, therapeutic, or pharmacology protocols. Participants are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments; neither the researchers nor the participants can choose which group. Used only for human populations.

Experimental Replication: Replication of the methods or results of a previous study, as indicated by the author. Studies that include extensions to original research are not considered replications.

Follow-up Study: Empirical study which re-examines studies of individuals or groups, comparing the present findings with the original observations or measurements in a previously conducted study.

Longitudinal Study: A study that follows the same individuals or groups of subjects over an extended period of time.

Prospective Study: Longitudinal study that looks at present data and includes ongoing data gathering in its methodology To generate prognostic or evidence rates.

Retrospective Study: Longitudinal research that examines past experiences or events to study causative factors related to disease or behavior.

Literature Review: Survey of previously published literature on a particular topic to define and clarify a particular problem; summarize previous investigations; and to identify relations, contradictions, gaps, and inconsistencies in the literature, and suggest the next step in solving the problem.

Systematic Review: A form of literature review that comprehensively identifies, appraises, and synthesizes all relevant literature to address a specific question.

Meta Analysis: Statistical analysis of previously published empirical data.

Mathematical Model: A mathematical structure, formula, or equation that can be used to describe and study a real situation. This type of methodology is commonly found in, but not limited to, studies of epidemiology, neural networks, artificial intelligence, robotics, human factors, utility theory, and statistics.

Field Study: Research undertaken outside the laboratory or place of learning ("in the field"), usually in a natural environment, including free-living wild animals in their natural habitat or research on humans using naturalistic observation techniques.

Qualitative Study: A type of research methodology that produces descriptive data, with little emphasis given to numerical quantitative measures. Examples include unstructured interviews, participant observations, and focus groups.

Quantitative Study: Study that provides numerical representation of observations for the purpose of describing and explaining the phenomenon studied followed by the application of various descriptive and inferential statistical methods.

Scientific Simulation: Examine issues in a controlled scientific simulation environment.

Brain Imaging: The use of imaging tools such as magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, Positron Emission Tomography or Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to study brain anatomy and its involvement in newurological and cognitive functions

Interview: Agoal-directed conversation with the obtaining information from an individual

Focus Group: Qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their opinions, perceptions, or experiences on issues, products, or services

Twin Studies: Compare the etiology of genetic and environmental traits of identical and fraternal twins

For a complete list of APA Methodologies and their respective definitions please refer to the following website:

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